Almost any plant can be considered a “weed,” even those we cultivate as crops or ornamentals, if they are able to survive and successfully reproduce or spread in the new environment. Volunteer corn growing in soybean fields, aggressive groundcovers and tree seedlings that sprout in the garden are considered weeds because, by definition, a weed is simply a “plant out of place” Western Integrated Pest Management Center For the latest IPM news and funding announcements, subscribe to our monthly newsletter. Targeting Weed Seeds at Harvest As herbicide-resistant Did you know that the seeds found in brick weed can be a great school in growing cannabis? The interesting thing is thinking that the seeds found can free
Weeds: The Survivors
Purslane is a common and persistent garden weed because a single plant can produce 52,000 seeds and broken off stem pieces will develop roots and continue to grow.
Iowa State University Extension
On the popular reality television show “Survivor,” contestants are eliminated from the competition by others until only the winner remains. If a group of herbaceous plants were put through a comparative competition, it is very likely that a weed species would win the million dollar prize. The reason is adaptability. The common weeds that invade our landscapes share a similar characteristic – their ability to adapt and thrive in man-influenced habitats.
Almost any plant can be considered a “weed,” even those we cultivate as crops or ornamentals, if they are able to survive and successfully reproduce or spread in the new environment. Volunteer corn growing in soybean fields, aggressive groundcovers and tree seedlings that sprout in the garden are considered weeds because, by definition, a weed is simply a “plant out of place” or an invader.
Some plant species become weedy pests because they possess specific attributes or characteristics that allow them to succeed and thrive in disturbed areas.
Ability to survive in cultivated soil
Many annual weeds, such as crabgrass, purslane, common ragweed, lambsquarter and redroot pigweed, produce an abundance of seeds. According to a former weed specialist from North Dakota, one common purslane plant will produce 52,000 seeds! If only a few seeds produced by that plant grow to maturity and set seed, there would be more than enough to create a serious weed problem in a garden or field for years to come. Because of this, it is important to control annual weeds in gardens and lawns before they flower and set seed.
Another survival mechanism many weeds possess is the survival of its seed. Seeds of many weed species can survive and remain dormant in the soil for several years until conditions are favorable for germination. For example, seeds of common ragweed can survive nearly 40 years in undisturbed soil. Only a portion of the seeds in the soil germinate each year, leaving a reserve for future years.
Some of the worst weeds to control in cultivated areas are those that spread by underground perennial roots or stems, such as Canada thistle and quackgrass. Tilling areas infested with these pests quickly multiplies their numbers because broken root or stem pieces have the potential to become new plants. These plants are best controlled with spot treatments of a non-selective herbicide, such as Roundup®, that kill the entire plant, roots and all.
Many weed species grow rapidly and shade the less vigorous, cultivated plants. The lack of adequate light causes poor crop growth and production. Some weed species are also greedy when it comes to soil nutrients and water, shorting our cultivated plants of these essential items.
Ability to tolerate unfavorable habitats
Some plants, such as knotweed and plantain, can tolerate compacted soil where turfgrass won’t grow. Seeds of drought and heat tolerant weed species germinate and grow in very adverse places, such as cracks in sidewalks.
Ability to withstand repeated cutting or mowing
Despite frequent mowing, weeds in lawns and pastures are able to survive because they avoid the mower blades with their low stature or sprawling growth habit. Also, some species, such as dandelions and crabgrass, are often able to bloom and set seed between mowings.
Don’t let weeds become the last “Survivor” in your lawn and garden. The best way to compete with weeds is to prevent them from becoming established. This can be accomplished by learning more about the life cycle of common weeds and using the most effective control strategy for each species. In gardens and landscapes, weeds can be controlled by mulching, frequent cultivation or hand weeding. Prevent weeds from invading your lawn by maintaining a thick, healthy turf so that there are few bare spots where weeds can germinate and grow. If herbicides are used, the appropriate product should be applied when the weed is most vulnerable to that product and there is minimal risk to non-target plants and the environment.
One print quality photo is available for this week’s column: 8505purslane.jpg
Western Integrated Pest Management Center
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Targeting Weed Seeds at Harvest
As herbicide-resistant weeds become more common across the country, researchers and growers are looking for other ways to control weeds.
In Colorado, they’re looking to techniques and technology developed in Australia, which has significant issues with herbicide-resistant weeds.
Known as harvest weed-seed control, these IPM-friendly methods are designed to destroy or remove weed seeds during harvest to prevent them from raining down onto the soil and replenishing the weed seed bank. In Colorado wheat, weed species of concern are winter annual grasses that share the grain’s growing cycle, like jointed goatgrass, feral rye and downy brome.
“In harvest weed-seed control, the objective is to prevent those seed-bank increases,” explained Colorado State University doctoral candidate Neeta Soni. “There are a number of ways to do it, and we’re investigating to see if they could be adopted in Colorado.”
One way to destroy the weeds seeds is by directing chaff during harvest into a cage mill – imagine a giant coffee grinder – and pulverizing the chaff and weed seeds into powder. That’s the idea behind an Australian innovation known as the Harrington Seed Destructor (and a new competitor called the Seed Terminator).
Another option is to use a piece of equipment called a chaff deck to gather chaff into mounded strips behind the harvester, capturing the weed seed in those mounds of chaff. In some places those chaff strips can be burned, and in others they’re left alone to allow the weed seeds to decay without entering the soil.
A third option is to use chaff carts and collect all the chaff and captured weed seeds for off-site destruction.
“Our research is focused on finding out if there is potential to use these methods in Colorado,” explained Soni, a graduate student of assistant professor Todd Gaines. “So what we needed to know is whether, at harvest, the majority of the winter annual grass seeds are retained in the upper wheat canopy, where they would be vulnerable to the seed destructor or other methods.”
If the weed seeds have already shattered and fallen to the soil, or if the weed seeds are below the cutting height of the combine, the methods would not be as effective.
So the Weed Research Lab team measured and counted a lot of weeds.
“What we found is that the majority of seeds are still retained at harvest,” Soni said. “Downy brome is the same height as wheat, rye is taller and jointed goatgrass a little shorter, but growers could adjust their cut height to manage it.”
Soni then counted out 1,000 seeds of each weed species into a specified amount of chaff and drove to the University of Arkansas where they have a seed destructor set up on a test platform. She ran each bundle through the destructor. The pulverized material was dusted across beds of soil to see if any weed seeds germinated. Virtually none did.
“The seed destructor was 98 percent effective on downy brome and jointed goatgrass, and 99 percent effective on feral rye,” Soni said.
The Gaines lab hopes to conduct field trials with the equipment. They will also study if the strips of mounded chaff are effective in Colorado, or if the state’s dry and windy conditions enable weed seeds to survive and spread.
The seed destructor isn’t commercially available in the United States yet, but a number of researchers are testing versions in different regions and in different crops. The initial model was a tow-behind trailer, but both Australian manufacturers now offer the technology integrated into a combine harvester that retails between $120,000 and $160,000 Australian dollars.
Not every grower would need to buy one.
“It is very common that growers here have their harvesting done by a contractor,” Soni said, “so this could be an extra service they provide.”
But not at every harvest. Because whatever specific iteration of harvest weed-seed control Colorado growers may eventually adopt, it should be just one element of an integrated management strategy, Soni cautioned.
“Repeated use could lead to the selection of earlier-shattering weed seeds, or shorter weeds,” she said. “It has to be used in rotation with other integrated measures, including herbicides and crop rotation.”
In short, it should be part of an IPM program.
Weed With A Lot Of Seeds
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BRICK WEED: ARE THE SEEDS GOOD TO USE?
Did you know that the seeds found in brick weed can be a great school in growing cannabis? The interesting thing is thinking that the seeds found can free you from having to smoke this marijuana in bulk.
Those who follow the blog must be aware of our cultivation series, in which we cover all the necessary steps to plant your cannabis and keep the plant healthy. And we know that access to the famous brick weed is super common, especially here in Brazil. And there are people who find a lot of seeds inside it and ask themselves: “can I plant it?”.
The answer is yes!
And let us tell you something important: brick weed seeds are a great “school” for starting cultivation. You can use these seeds if you want to grow, mainly because access to other seeds (from specific strains) can be more complicated – and more expensive – here in Brazil. Knowing how to differentiate good from bad seeds and dealing with them with care and love, it can become a beautiful plant, full of buds and really healthy.
Here in this post, we will tell you the main care you should take with her. Let’s learn?
Good seeds and bad seeds
In our step-by-step on germination, we have told how the seed selection process takes place. With brick weed seeds, you have to be extra careful: it is very easy to find seeds, but they will not always grow. So as soon as you find and collect your seeds, do the following test to separate the good and the bad:
Apply a little pressure to the skin;
If it breaks easily, the seed is no longer good for planting.
If it doesn’t break, it is perfect to go to the germination phase!
Another indication that a pressed seed is good is its color. If it is dark brown, with a good shine and some lighter patterns, it is usually perfect for germinating. If it is white or green, weak, it may be dry or not mature.
Test with water: another good way to know if the seed is in good condition is to leave it in the water for 24 hours, in a dark and not too cold place. If they go to the bottom of the glass, they are healthy. If they don’t, give them a little push – if they don’t go down anyway, you can throw it away – this baby won’t make it.
You can leave the seeds germinating in the water itself, or go for the paper towel method.
For this method, you will need:
Two clean dishes;
Take two paper towels and place them on a plate. Then place the cannabis seeds at least an inch apart and cover them with the remaining two sheets of paper towels soaked in water.
To create a dark, protected space, take another plate and turn it over to cover the seeds (like a dome).
Check that the area in which they are kept is warm, between 20 and 30 ° C.
After these steps, it’s time to wait! Don’t forget to check the paper and make sure it is still wet. When it is drying, add more water with a spray bottle.
Some seeds germinate very quickly, while others can take several days. You know that a seed germinated when the seed separated and a single little sprout emerged from it.
So, is it male or female?
As brick seeds are basically regular seeds, we have no way of knowing whether they are male and female until they develop and it is possible to see their reproductive organs. Yeah, friends, biology is important, you see? We will show you how to identify these beauties. (put images and point the difference with little arrows)
Female cannabis has what appear to be hairs, which are the pistils.
Male cannabis begins to develop marbles, which are its pollen bags.
Jeez, it’s a male. What do I do now?
If you aren’t familiar with this process, we will explain to you: the female plant is the one that gives flowers, and that will produce beautiful buds for you. But male cannabis. Ah, them males… they can kinda ruin your goal to get extra good buds.
When we have a male and he pollinates the female plants, they turn their energy to produce more seeds, and less flowers. This can happen even if a neighbor grows cannabis nearby: pollen from the male plant can travel long distances and create seeds in the buds of others.
So, our guideline is: throw the male away! For the love of buds.
What strain is this?
It is practically impossible to tell the strain of your press plant. That’s because it usually comes from plants that are grown only to be trafficked by Latin America, in several different places, in different ways and with seeds and characteristics that can change with each harvest.
However, you can identify whether it is more sativa or more indica by looking at the characteristics.
Normally, the pressed seeds are more sativa, plants are thinner and have more aerated buds. It is worth remembering that the brick seed’s flora time is usually longer.
The profile of cannabinoids, production of trichomes, profile of terpenes and other characteristics is more difficult to know, but they can be observed and perceived throughout the flora and after harvest.
So, ready to plant your brick weed seed? We guarantee that, with a lot of love and care, they can be wonderful! In addition to that you will be stopping consuming bricks, which can come full of debris, and you will not be contributing to the traffic.
It’s funny to say that, but maybe a brick weed seed that will save you from having to smoke brick cannabis!
Hands to the ground!
To learn more, follow our cultivation series! We will bring even more information on how to give the best care to your plants.