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is there thc in seeds

Is there thc in seeds

Now, for the center of the seed, home to the precious embryo from which your new plant will grow from. It contains the plant’s genetic code alongside four other parts; the radicle, the hypocotyl, cotyledons and gemmules. The radicle is the embryonic root; this is the part of the seed where roots come from. The hypocotyl is known as the embryonic stage, and the cotyledons are in charge of those first few leaves that you can see once the seed germinates.

Oxygen is found in nature in a concentration of about 21%; seeds tend to germinate in conditions with around 20-21% oxygen, and hardly any seeds can germinate with a lower concentration than that; the only plants that can really do that are marine plants and algae, which need 8% oxygen.
Inicio » News » How do Cannabis Seeds Work

How do cannabis seeds work? You might not think that this is important, but knowing how seeds work can give you important insight on how to store them and what the germination profess involved. Cannabis seeds are technically small, oval-shaped dried fruit, around 3-4mm long and 1.5-2mm wide. They’re covered in a very subtle membrane, and underneath that layer there’s a much harder layer which is the largest system of the embryo, covering it and protecting it.
During the time the seed is maturing various factors need to occur for the seed to be able to germinate in the best conditions. Seeds have a germination period of three years, which is the average time estimated that seeds can be kept in good conditions; it’s not the same to keep your seed in a fresh, dry area than in a hot and humid one. Humid areas will damage seeds, stimulating their metabolism with the humidity without stimulating germination which could even kill the seed off entirely. Water absorption is due to the water potential difference between the seed and its surroundings. Water reaches the embryo through all of the layers of the seed, which then activates the development of the radicle; once this process begins, seeds need more oxygen than water, so giving your seeds too much water might in fact “drown” them. This is why we highly recommend not germinating your seeds in glasses of water, as the oxygen-water ratio is nowhere near optimal for germination.
Germinating seeds correctly depends on different factors; the main one being how mature the seed is. Seeds that look too white, green or the skin seems to be coming off or not there at all tend to be too young still, although there are seeds of this stature that will germinate perfectly, depending on the strain. Strains like Somango, or hybrids that come from it, and Haze seeds are some of the whitest seeds you can find on the market; sativa seeds tend to be much smaller than indica seeds, like Thai seeds are generally much smaller than afghan seeds. In this case, size doesn’t matter at all; if a seed is smaller than others that doesn’t mean that it’s going to have issues germinating or that it will grow smaller plants. Smaller seeds generally have less protection, but they’re much easier to germinate. Seeds can take between 3-18 days to germinate depending on the conditions such as temperature, humidity, substrate composition etc. The longer the seeds take to germinate, the less likely that they are going to germinate. Sometimes if after a while it still hasn’t germinated, you can gently squeeze the seed to break the outer shell and if done right, you can help the root to leave the shell; if done wrong, you’ll end up completely squishing the seed and any chances of germination that it had.
Cannabis seeds, just like many other plant seeds, grow in pollinated flowers on female plants; seeds only contain the plant’s genetic code, so they don’t have any of the active principals in the plant, meaning that if you were to smoke it you wouldn’t get any sort of psychoactive or medicinal effect. They can be eaten however, as they provide an enormous amount of beneficial proteins, including Omega 3, 6 and 9. The aroma that comes from the seeds when burning isn’t pleasant at all, and if you’ve ever been smoking a joint that had a random seed in it then you know exactly what I’m talking about; they taste like some sort of burnt barbecue that ruins the taste of even the best, strongest tasting weed out there.
On the inside of the seeds you can find a substance called albumen, which is a nutritional reserve that keeps the embryo healthy until germination; it’s also the seeds initial source of energy once it begins germinating.

By lowering oxygen levels as well as temperature storage levels you can increase the life-span of your seed for up to 20 years. Another storage technique is to dehydrate the seeds around 2-5%; no more is recommended as it might affect the internal constitution of the seed. Temperature is extremely important as it regulates the activity of the enzymes during germination; during storage, temperature regulates the embryos metabolism.

How do cannabis seeds work? Learn how to store your seeds, how long you can store them for, how to germinate them and their internal biology.

Is there thc in seeds

Δ 9 -THC primarily undergoes liver metabolism through CYP3A4 and CYP2C9. 16 Due to the polymorphic nature of P450 enzymes, 17,18 people consuming hemp seeds may gradually accumulate Δ 9 -THC due to its slow metabolism or relatively long half-life in the body, leading to potentially higher concentrations. In the report by Chinello et al., Δ 9 -THC concentration in the prescribed hemp seed oil was 0.06%, that is, 0.6 mg of total Δ 9 -THC in 1 g of hemp seed oil, and the child was administered two teaspoons (∼10 mL or 9.2 g) a day for 3 weeks before the incidence of neurological symptoms. 19 This amounts to 5.52 mg total Δ 9 -THC per day, when one consumes 10 mL above hemp seed oil. If one were to compare these total Δ 9 -THC levels, a similar quantity of total Δ 9 -THC (5.52 mg) is contained in ∼44.2 g of hemp seeds (brand# 1, total Δ 9 -THC estimate based on SFE extraction), and this is certainly a normal quantity that consumers may consume as part of their daily food consumption. In people with liver impairment or patients consuming other drugs such as ketoconazole (an inhibitor of CYP3A4) or sulfaphenazole (an inhibitor of CYP2C9), one would expect the metabolism of Δ 9 -THC to be slower, and would be at risk for adverse effects upon the consumption of hemp seeds with higher concentrations of total Δ 9 -THC. 16,20,21 However, we note that the bioavailability of Δ 9 -THC is only 10−20% and could vary if consumed along with fatty food, and such factors would influence the plasma levels of Δ 9 -THC. 22–24

Extraction methods employed in this investigation utilize somewhat different principles to extract the phytocannabinoids from the hemp seeds into the solvent. Microwave-based extraction method used ethanol as the solvent, but at temperatures up to 150°C with stirring; majority of the acid forms, Δ 9 -THCA and CBDA, would be converted into the corresponding neutral forms, Δ 9 -THC and CBD, due to exposure to high temperature. This extraction process is also expected to offer high solubility to the phytocannabinoids due to heating to higher temperatures. Sonication was conducted at an ambient temperature using ethanol as the solvent, and is expected to help release compounds from the plant materials. SFE was conducted using a mixture of supercritical CO2 and ethanol as solvent, at high pressures, but temperature was maintained at 40°C; thus, the extraction efficiency depended on the solubility of phytocannabinoids in supercritical CO2 and ethanol mixture. Most exhaustive extraction, due to high temperature and long extraction time, is likely to be Soxhlet extraction, which was performed at the reflux temperatures in ethanol and for up to 4 h. Among these four methods, one would anticipate the highest yield of phytocannabinoids from Soxhlet extraction. Since ethanol was used in all these extraction methods, differences in extracted quantities of phytocannabinoids can be attributed to the extraction methods themselves.
According to Health Canada’s Industrial Hemp Technical Manual, the current approved procedure of Δ 9 -THC quantification in hemp involves the sonication of 3 g of dried leaf powder in hexanes followed by analysis by gas chromatography. 11 There is no mention of testing procedures for any other parts of the hemp plant, including its seeds. Using a similar hexane-sonication procedure, quantification conducted by Ross et al., obtained Δ 9 -THC concentrations of 0–12 μg/g for fiber-type cannabis seeds. 7 In this study, ethanolic extraction using sonication exhibited significant variation from 17% to 92% of the maximum yield across the three brands of hemp seeds. This inconsistency could be attributed to the higher oil content within hemp seeds compared to the rest of plant. Due to hydrophobicity of the Δ 9 -THC molecule, it is expected to partition more strongly into the seed material, leading to the gross underestimation of Δ 9 -THC content by sonication.

1 Center for Molecular Design and Preformulations, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.
For brand# 3, three extraction methods concurred with the estimation of the phytocannabinoids, viz. microwave extraction, sonication, and SFE estimated the CBD in the rage of 7±9 μg/g to 21±9 μg/g, and total Δ 9 -THC content in the range of 11±4 to 23±4 μg/g hemp seeds ( Fig. 2C ). However, Soxhlet extraction indicated that the amount of CBD and total Δ 9 -THC in brand# 3 hemp seeds to be 90±51 and 91±28 μg/g of hemp seeds, respectively. While the former estimations indicate that total Δ 9 -THC is closer to the legal limit in hemp seeds, the latter method indicated it to be up to nine folds higher than the legal limit, and this is a significant difference. Overall, none of the brands using any of the methods could convincingly be confirmed that the total Δ 9 -THC content is within the legal limits of 10 μg/g of hemp seeds. It is also noted that the phytocannabinoid content exhibited a significant variation even among batches from the same brand, reflecting both the inhomogeneous nature of seeds as well as the variations in quantification based on the extraction process.
4. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Hemp seeds (1 or 2 g) were macerated with a mortar and pestle, reweighed, and transferred to an extraction vessel. The extraction was performed using supercritical CO2 as solvent A and ethanol as solvent B. The photodiode array detector was used to monitor the extract, with the range set to 200–600 nm. The back-pressure regulator was set to 12 MPa for the SFE, and other conditions include the following: flow rate=10 mL/min for both CO2 and slave pumps, and 1 mL/min for the make-up pump; temperature=40°C; and gradient: 0–25 min: solvent A, 100%→50%, and solvent B, 0%→50%; 25–26 min: solvent B, 100%; and 26–30 min: solvent A, 100%. The acquisition time was 30 min and the total run time was 30.2 min. All fractions were combined and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure at 25°C to obtain the extract as a resin (yield: 31–37%).
Four extraction methods were used to extract resins from three brands of food-grade hemp seeds. Each brand of hemp seeds was subjected to each extraction procedure thrice to assess any variability that might arise from the extraction procedure itself. Yields of resin obtained are based on the reweighed seeds.
1 Center for Molecular Design and Preformulations, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.

Chemical structures of (A) Δ 9 -THC, (B) CBD, (C) Δ 9 -THCA, and (D) CBDA. THCA, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid.

Cannabis sativa (Hemp) Seeds, Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol, and Potential Overdose Yi Yang 1 Center for Molecular Design and Preformulations, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute,