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Is CBD Trail Running’s Wonder Drug? Create a personalized feed and bookmark your favorites. Already have an account? Join Trail Runner Magazine Create a personalized feed and bookmark Intrigued about CBD and how it can help your running and recovery? Here's our round-up of products to help you do just that Cannabis products are rapidly growing in popularity. Here's a complete guide to CBD for athletes.

Is CBD Trail Running’s Wonder Drug?

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Scott Gold loves the grind and exhilaration of long technical trail runs as much as anyone. The challenge of running over rocks, roots and ridges provides an ideal blend of physical and mental stimulation as well as peacefulness.

The 31-year-old software-service manager from Boulder, Colorado, has logged his share of early morning jaunts before work, long mountain runs on the weekends and trail races from 26 miles to 100K in recent years. But he also knows what it feels like a day or so after those kinds of runs. Aside from minor aches and soreness, he also often feels tired and generally fatigued and that can lead to stress and anxiety.

A few years ago, he discovered cannabidiol, or CBD oil—a non-intoxicating plant-based substance derived from cannabis plants—and now he ingests it on a daily basis. Yes, those are similar plants from which intoxicating marijuana is derived, but don’t jump to conclusions that Gold is some kind recreational doper. It’s not about getting high.

Breaking Down CBD

While marijuana and THC-derived supplements produce a wide range of psychoactive effects, CBD does not. For a growing number of trail runners, CBD is a natural alternative to ibuprofen, naproxen and a range of opioid painkillers, while for others it’s a sleep aid or recovery supplement. For Gold, it’s mostly about recovery and reduced anxiety.

For a growing number of trail runners, CBD is a natural alternative to ibuprofen, naproxen and a range of opioid painkillers, while for others it’s a sleep aid or recovery supplement.

Gold, who ingests CBD supplements most evenings, says, “It’s hard to tell how it really works, but for me the bottom line is that I feel more refreshed the next day, and I feel pretty rotten if I don’t take it.”

That’s a common reaction among growing number of professional and recreational trail runners who use CBD supplements. The increased prevalence and acceptance of CBD for medicinal uses can be partially attributed to the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill that legalized industrial hemp and declassified it as a Schedule 1 drug.

Although THC is fully legal as a recreational drug in only 11 states and Washington D.C. as of spring 2020, CBD is legal (in some form or another) in all 50 states. CBD enhanced with THC is only legal in pot-legal states.

It’s important to note that CBD products sold in the U.S. fall into one of two categories. CBD isolate contains only CBD without any other cannabinoids; full-spectrum CBD oil retains THC and other cannabinoids. In either form, it can be consumed in several different ways, including chewable gummy tablets, ingestible capsules and food products, powdered recovery drinks, tinctures, topical creams and balms or via vaporizing. Dosage might range from 10mg to 25mg, depending on the individual and symptoms.

Overcoming the Stigma

As medicinal CBD has separated from the hazy social stigma of recreational pot, it has gone from a largely misunderstood substance originally tied to the legalized marijuana trade to somewhat of a modern wonder drug and a natural panacea for soreness, pain, anxiety, depression and inconsistent sleep—even though there is little research to support any CBD health claims, given that it’s only become fully legal within the past year.

Pro trail runner Hillary Allen started using CBD to treat pain and inflammation after suffering major injuries during a fall in a technical trail race in Tromsø, Norway, two years ago. After tripping and falling near the halfway mark of the 50K race, she tumbled more than 150 feet over rocks and scree, suffering two broken ribs, a couple of fractures in her back, a ruptured ligament in her foot and two broken wrists, not to mention numerous lacerations, scrapes and deep bruises. In the weeks and months that followed, she was in constant pain.

Allen, who has a master’s degree in neuroscience, was already aware of the positive effects CBD can have on overactive nerves, but she was drawn to topical ointments and creams to treat localized pain and inflammation during her recovery. Because it’s legal in Colorado, she also uses CBD that contains trace amounts of THC as a sleep aid.

“When I was recovering, I used CBD as often as I needed it—which was every day and sometimes multiple times a day,” says Allen. “I’d always rub it on my foot to sooth it for sleeping and then I started taking an oral supplement more for a sleep aid when I was having trouble sleeping. With a broken back, I took all the help I could get.”

Is It Competition-Legal?

Although THC is legal in 11 states, it remains on the WADA/USADA banned substance list, meaning athletes can be suspended if it comes up in a drug test. However, CBD was removed from the list in January 2019 and is no longer prohibited. Still, both continue to carry a bit of a lingering stigma.

That’s something that Joanna Zeiger, Ph.D., is trying to help eliminate. A former professional triathlete who competed in the U.S. Olympic Trials for both triathlon and the marathon, Zeiger started using CBD and combinations of CBD and THC after she retired to manage chronic pain and discovered that she wasn’t alone.

Joanna Zeiger, Ph.D. founded the Canna Research Group in Boulder, Colorado, last year and conducted the Athlete PEACE Survey to understand CBD and THC use among adult athletes. The biggest takeaway was that 61 percent of athletes polled were using some sort of CBD—either with or without THC—to successfully manage pain.

She founded the Canna Research Group in Boulder, Colorado, last year and conducted the Athlete PEACE Survey to understand CBD and THC use among adult athletes. The biggest takeaway was that 61 percent of athletes polled were using some sort of CBD—either with or without THC—to successfully manage pain. There were also some adverse effects reported—including difficulty concentrating and increased appetite—but the good far outweighed the bad, Zeiger says.

“A lot of athletes are turning to it for pain management, improved sleep and decreased anxiety,” she says. “With CBD being legalized, it’s become a dip-your-toe-in-the-water experiment for people who are still feeling the stigma of THC but are canna-curious.”

It’s Still the Wild, Wild West

The biggest challenge is that the CBD industry is still in the wild, wild west of its evolution, partially because the absence of federal regulation. In late May 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration held a public hearing to allow stakeholders in the CBD world to share their experiences and challenges with products containing cannabis and cannabis-derived compounds to begin a regulatory strategy.

While there are many reputable brands such as iKOR Labs, Charlotte’s Web, Floyd’s of Leadville, cbdMD, NuLeaf Naturals, Spruce, CBDistillery and Myaderm, among others, that are willing to share all of their manufacturing information, there are plenty of shady brands too. So buyer beware, Zeiger says.

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Some CBD products can contain contaminants because cannabis plants can absorb heavy metals, pesticides and other harmful chemicals found in the soil or water. Until the FDA comes out with regulations, CBD and the companies that sell it are largely unchecked when it comes to manufacturing, labeling, claims and dosage.

Treat the Root Cause First

Dr. Lara Johnson, a Boulder-based physical therapist, is aware of the positive effect CBD products can have for an athlete, but she recommends treating the root cause of the pain or soreness first and foremost. CBD might be helpful, but it also might be similar to using kinesiology tape, custom insoles or even engaging in an improper training or strengthening program, she says, in that it’s not really going to heal the problem or fix it.

“People might think it’s a wonder drug, but I tend to think most drugs aren’t wonderful, in general, because they tend to mask what’s really going on,” Johnson says. “Our bodies are very intelligent and when they tell us about pain or soreness, it’s an indication about some bigger things that might need addressing. If CBD is helping with pain management and recovery, that’s a good thing. But it’s not going to be dealing with the root cause of biomechanics or nerve function or other things that might be causing the pain or soreness.”

People might think it’s a wonder drug, but I tend to think most drugs aren’t wonderful, in general, because they tend to mask what’s really going on,” Johnson says. “Our bodies are very intelligent and when they tell us about pain or soreness, it’s an indication about some bigger things that might need addressing.

In the meantime, the product offerings from CBD brands continues to evolve with trail runners in mind. For example, iKOR Labs released its Recovery Shot in early June at the Ragnar Trail relay event in Snowmass, Colorado. The all-natural, two-ounce drink formula includes tart cherry juice, turmeric, ginger root, black pepper, plus 22 milligrams of full-spectrum hemp extract and 13 milligrams of CBD per serving and a proprietary blend of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant extracts.

“Yeah, it’s still the wild west and a buyer’s beware market because there are clearly a lot of brands trying to make a quick buck out there,” says Jon Robichaud, vice president of marketing for iKOR Labs. “For us, it’s really about education and the people behind the product, as much as the product itself. Our intent is to become a thought leader so we can rise above the part of the industry that is just white-labeling products and selling them vs. putting thought behind what an individual really needs and how it can affect them on a daily basis.”

As for Gold, he says he keeps up on research and news about CBD and continues to adjust what’s best for him, lately preferring Stillwater Brands’ Ripple drink mix with a 20/1 CBD/THC ratio and Extract Lab gummies with a 10/1 ratio.

“You kind of have to experiment a bit to figure out what works for you,” he says. “If you get the right combo, you can really feel your body relax and that’s when the pain management begins.”

Tips on Using CBD

OK, so you’re interested in trying cannabidiol, or CBD oil, to manage pain, inflammation, sleep or general recovery. But how do you get started?

As with any industry, not all products are created equally. There are high-quality products and low-quality products and just about everything in between, says Aaron Cadena, editor of CBD Origin.com, an online education, news and resource site about cannabidiol. Until the FDA begins regulating CBD, the most important keys are awareness and education.

Cadena says the critical factor in your purchasing process is making sure you’re buying CBD products from a company that insists on third-party testing from a reputable lab that provides a valid Certificate of Analysis report. That will allow you to make sure the cannabinoid content listing on the product’s label is consistent with what is listed in the product’s lab report, that the product is free from harmful contaminants and contains less than 0.3 percent THC—both for legal reasons and to avoid unwanted side effects.

Knowing where was the hemp sourced, how was it cultivated and what kind of CBD you’re buying is also important, as is understanding the dosages in each product, whether it’s a gel capsule, gummy, drink mix or tincture.

When in doubt, ask more questions and do some digging for answers. Does the company have a good reputation? What other ingredients are included in the product? Are the ingredients natural and organic? Is it fairly priced?

“The only consensus is the idea of ‘starting slow and going slow,’ meaning you should start with very low dosages and increase it slowly over time as you figure out what the effects are,” says Joanna Zeiger, Ph.D, who also suggests doing plenty research about a brand before buying any CBD products and keeping a journal to keep track of your usage.

The CBD products that can help running recovery

Intrigued about CBD and how it can help your running and recovery? Here’s our round-up of products to help you do just that

The medicinal benefits of the cannabis plant have been used for centuries to heal and restore health. In ancient times, herbalists and physicians cultivated cannabis extracts to help cure everything from the common cold to indigestion, and in the last few years the active ingredient cannabidiol (CBD) which is found in the plant has created a major buzz in wellness circles.

There are so many health concerns that CBD is thought to help address. From helping you to sleep better after a long run or before a big race to melting away post-workout pain, this wonder ingredient can help to turbocharge training.

Here’s our round-up of some of the latest CBD products to help running recovery.

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1. Cheerful Buddha CBD Infused Chocolate

Your perfect post-run healthy indulgence. Made with the finest sustainably sourced single origin cacao and precision infused with UK hemp-derived CBD oil, Cheerful Buddha’s 70% dark CBD chocolate is the ultimate go-to recovery snack. A Great Taste award winner, it delivers all the benefits of high-quality CBD in a deliciously smooth and rich luxury chocolate. Buy it online or from WHSmith Travel stores nationwide.

Available in Plain, Mint and Orange flavour.

2. Ardoa CrossPro CBD Muscle & Joint Recovery Cream 50ml

High in CBD, anti-inflammatory and 100% plant-based, CrossPro Topical is specially formulated to aid in sports related muscle, joint and skin recovery. It combines 18 nourishing botanicals, selected for their therapeutic benefits, with 750mg of pure CBD isolate to create a powerful addition to your post workout routine.

Get £5 off + free shipping with code WRUNFIVE at the checkout.

3. Mission C Pre-Workout + CBD Heating Muscle Balm

Mission C’s Pre-Workout + CBD Heating Muscle Balm is the perfect way to prep your leg muscles before any training run or big race day. Infused with Pure Isolate CBD plus Arnica, Camphor, Menthol and natural essential oils, this luxurious balm intensely heats the muscles, stimulating blood flow while reducing inflammation and providing the required energy boost for your best performance yet.

4. Fourfive CBD Thermal Joint Gel

Designed to keep you moving, this CBD Thermal Joint Gel is the perfect post run saviour. Combining 300mg of premium CBD with active ingredients such as glucosamine, arnica and menthol, this innovative formula is 100% natural and paraben free. Apply the joint gel as and when needed and feel the warming effects on aching joints.

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5. Runk CBD Foot Cream

Our feet are what keep us going throughout the miles, so why wouldn’t you want to look after them? They’re often forgotten about, so it’s time to put them on the front foot (pun intended). Runk’s CBD Foot Cream is thick and buttery, and full of natural oils, to provide an intense moisturising treatment for dry and cracked heels. Use after a run to keep your feet in tip top condition! The CBD element can help relieve pain with its anti-inflammatory elements.

£14.95 | runk.co

6. Holistic Herb CBD Oral Drops

Holistic Herbs THC Free CBD Oral Drops use a unique delivery technology, Total Bioavailability™, to enable better absorption into the bloodstream. Model, racing driver and TV personality Jodie Kidd uses these drops as an alternative solution to treat her anxiety and pain. She takes the drops each morning and evening, and through the day as necessary when she has an important meeting or she’s travelling through crowded areas. If it works for Jodie!

Available in single & double strength in 15ml, 30ml & 60ml.

7. Papilio CBD Tiger Balm

For centuries, Tiger Balm has been used to bring relief to tired and aching muscles, to ease headaches or as a decongestant. Combining the wisdom of this ancient recipe with the beneficial properties of CBD, this premium quality balm quickly soothes by massaging just a small amount at the point of discomfort. The perfect addition to any runner’s recovery kit!

Get 20% off CBD Tiger Balm with code RUN20 at checkout.
Valid until 31st December 2022.

8. Runk CBD Joint Relief Cream

Made with natural ingredients to provide pain relief, Runk’s CBD Joint Relief Cream is designed for runners to help the post-run issues. Created with CBD which has anti-inflammatory elements, use this cream to help ease tired muscles and joints post-exercise.

What Is CBD and Can It Help Your Performance?

A natural alternative to ibuprofen. An antidote to anxiety. A sleep aid. A post-workout recovery booster.

Those are some of the claims about cannabidiol (CBD) oil. You may have heard about this cannabis extract, which is said to provide widespread health benefits without the drawbacks of marijuana. And because of new federal legislation, you’ll probably be hearing a lot more about CBD over the next few years.

Already, a growing number of athletes, including many in the trail running and ultramarathon community, consider CBD a key part of their regimen. And because of these early adopters, my interest piqued on CBD and its proposed benefits. Could CBD help my running? Can it help yours? I decided to find out.

But before we explore how runners and other athletes use CBD, here’s what you need to know.

What is CBD?

CBD is shorthand for cannabidiol, one of the more than 100 cannabinoids found in cannabis. CBD products are said to deliver their many claimed benefits by boosting the body’s endocannabinoid system, which is a system that “is a unique signaling pathway that controls the function of a variety of systems throughout the body, including the cardiovascular system,” says Nicholas DiPatrizio, Ph.D., a professor of biomedical sciences at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine. (More on the endocannabinoid system later.)

Endocannabinoids are familiar to runners because of their theorized role in running-induced mood boosts. That euphoric phenomenon is thought to be from activation of the same receptors in the brain that the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in marijuana acts upon. CBD “works through distinct—albeit not definitively identified—signaling systems than THC,” DiPatrizio says. CBD is non-psychoactive, which means it doesn’t produce a high.

Here are some other common questions to think about:

Is CBD legal?

The Athlete’s Guide to CBD: Treat Pain and Inflammation, Maximize Recovery, and Sleep Better Naturally

Almost all commercially available CBD products are made from industrial hemp, a cannabis plant that, by definition, contains not more than 0.3 percent THC. In December, President Trump signed the 2018 Farm Bill, which legalizes industrial hemp. It had previously been federally classified as a Schedule 1 drug; its production and distribution were prohibited. The upshot: The federal Drug Enforcement Administration can’t interfere with the interstate commerce of industrial hemp. CBD products made from hemp are as legal as most other commercial nutritional supplements.

In terms of athletics, hemp-derived CBD was removed from the World Anti-Doping Agency’s list of prohibited substances earlier this year. Hemp legalization and more companies targeting athletes should further separate CBD from its cultural association with marijuana.

How Do You Take CBD?

CBD products come in a variety of forms, including tinctures, gel caps, and topical applications. One athlete-focused company, Floyd’s of Leadville, offers a protein recovery powder and a carb drink that contain CBD. (That’s Floyd as in Floyd Landis, the former professional cyclist who was stripped of his 2006 Tour de France title for failing a drug test and who helped to expose Lance Armstrong’s doping.) Another athlete-focused company, PurePower Botanicals, offers capsules that combine CBD with herbs and other purported medicinals, such as turmeric. PurePower says that the non-hemp-derived ingredients increase the effectiveness of the products’ CBD.

How Popular Is It?

In 2017, U.S. hemp-derived CBD sales totaled an estimated $190 million. At this point, companies offering CBD products are more akin to craft breweries than large corporations. That has been the case because of hemp’s previous federal legal status; banks and other financial institutions under federal oversight couldn’t be involved. Now that hemp has been legalized, look for bigger players in the health industry to enter the CBD market and for sales to increase dramatically.

What Claims Are Made About CBD?

Advocates say it helps with a wide variety of conditions, from anxiety and insomnia to inflammation and nausea. Because of the workings of the endocannabinoid system, there’s at least a theoretical basis for these claims.

“The endocannabinoid system is found in every organ throughout the body and controls many physiological processes, including food intake and energy balance, learning and memory, and pain processing, to name a few,” says DiPatrizio.

“It can affect everything from emotion to pain to appetite to energy metabolism to brain function to even the immune system and inflammation,” says Hector Lopez, M.D., a consultant to PlusCBD Oil, one of the top-selling brands. “When you have a system that crosstalks with all those pathways, then there are very few things the endocannabinoid system does not influence.”

So far, though, there’s scant clinical evidence for the claimed benefits of CBD. In June, the Food and Drug Administration approved the first CBD drug, Epidiolex, for treating seizures associated with two rare forms of epilepsy. Otherwise, the FDA doesn’t consider CBD products to be dietary supplements—manufacturers can’t claim the products will diagnose, treat, or cure any diseases. Instead, CBD product literature contains phrases like “restore vitality,” “relax and recover,” and “may keep healthy people healthy.”

DiPatrizio says, “There may be some benefits outside of improving epilepsy outcomes, but a lot more research is required.” Any research on athletic claims would almost certainly come from the industry; there are more urgent public health CBD topics to investigate than whether it reduces runners’ knee pain. For the foreseeable future, runners interested in CBD’s effectiveness will have to rely on anecdotal, subjective reports.

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What Are Athletes’ Experiences With CBD?

Some of those anecdotal reports are impressive. One of my training partners, Erin Dawson-Chalat, M.D., of Cape Elizabeth, Maine, says that her persistent plantar fascia pain went away within a few days of applying topical CBD balm to the area.

“I don’t like to take stuff like ibuprofen or prescription medications. I’m always looking for natural alternatives.”

Like many athletes I’ve spoken with, Dawson-Chalat appreciates that CBD is a natural product.

“I don’t like to take stuff like ibuprofen or prescription medications,” says Andrew Talansky, a professional triathlete from Napa, California, who, as an elite cyclist, rode in the Tour de France. “I’m always looking for natural alternatives.” When Talansky heard an increasing number of athletes talking about CBD, “I went from skepticism to being interested to asking advice on how to use it,” he says.

Talansky says that his sleep improved almost immediately when he started taking CBD daily. Soon after, he was also less anxious about transitioning from pro cycling to his new sport, felt that he recovered more quickly from hard training, and had fewer flare-ups of his old cycling injuries. Now he encourages other athletes to try CBD, in part “to get rid of the association with smoking weed,” he says. “It’s completely different.”

Elite ultramarathoner Avery Collins doesn’t mind any associations with marijuana; his Instagram handle is @runninhigh. But he also takes CBD daily, despite some of its claimed benefits overlapping with those attributed to marijuana.

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“THC products are more for the psychoactive effect, which may not be for everyone,” the Steamboat Springs, Colorado, resident says. “CBD use is for more health-minded people.” Collins says CBD products “are a big part of my daily routine,” and credits them with boosting his energy levels, speeding his recovery from long trail runs, and improving his sleep.

My Trial With CBD

Given reports like these, I decided to conduct an (admittedly flawed) experiment of one: For one month, I would take CBD daily while changing nothing else—mileage, intensity, strength training, other aspects of self-care—in my routine.

What did I experience? As was the case for Talansky, my sleep improved almost immediately. It wasn’t that I slept more; I felt like I slept better—more soundly, less waking during the night, more often getting out of bed feeling refreshed. By the second week, I noticed less overall creakiness while going about daily activities; CBD advocates would say the products had lowered systemic inflammation. Those two changes made me feel like I was recovering better from training, which led to being more eager to train, and feeling better while doing so.

Most acutely, the discomfort and stiffness I’d felt for months from a meniscus tear (confirmed by MRI) went away. The occasional twinges I had been getting on runs stopped. More significantly, what had been the tear’s near-constant presence in daily life, such as when getting up from sitting, has disappeared. For now, I’ve postponed surgery on the tear. It’s impossible to know if CBD was the key factor in any of these changes. Still, at the end of the month, I decided to keep taking CBD daily.

All that said, CBD isn’t an athletic cure-all. After my initial month-long experiment, I wrenched my lower back while lifting weights. Increasing my CBD intake, primarily through frequent self-massage with salves and creams, didn’t seem to help. Rest and prescription muscle relaxants were the keys to resuming normal activities, including running.

My experience meshes with how some health professionals who work with athletes view CBD.

Dan Frey, a physical therapist in Portland, Maine, says that his patients report the most success using CBD to treat long-term trouble spots rather than acute injury sites. Frey, who doesn’t prescribe medication or supplements, says his conversations about CBD are initiated by patients. Many also tell Frey they find it helps with pain management, especially when used in conjunction with other treatments such as massage and a targeted strengthening and mobility program.

“CBD coupled with stretching, icing, and foam rolling is a common treatment plan for tendonitis injuries about the knee, such as iliotibial band syndrome,” says Charles Bush-Joseph, M.D., a professor of orthopedics at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago. “Many patients like the fact that CBD is a natural substance. While specific research on the use of CBD in this instance is lacking, many believe that it helps prevent muscle and collagen breakdown.”

How Should You Take CBD?

In addition to how to take CBD—tincture, gel, topical cream, drink powder—there are the matters of how much and when.

“One of the intricacies of CBD is that effective dosing can be much different between two people,” Lopez says. “There’s no way to know what dose is right for you until you try it, but in general, if you’re someone who is sensitive to most medications, start at the lower end of typical doses.” By that, he means a daily dose of 5 to 15 milligrams—a few drops of a tincture, depending on a product’s strength. “If you’re feeling no effects, adverse or beneficial, after three to five days, add another serving of the same amount.”

Runners pushing themselves daily might want to try more. Floyd’s of Leadville owner Bob Bell says that the company’s 50-milligram soft gels are its top seller. Talansky says his baseline is a 25-milligram gel, plus applying a strong topical cream three to five times a day if a specific body part is bothering him. He takes more on his hardest training days to speed recovery.

How much is too much? Lopez says no significant adverse reactions have been reported for the more than 1 million doses that have been sold in the United States. There is, however, a personal threshold at which the products stop being effective, and maybe even become less effective.

I found I was too groggy during work hours if, on a typical day, I took CBD in the morning and at night. A dose of 25 milligrams an hour before going to bed, plus occasional topical use, has become my norm. The main exception is after an especially long or hard weekend run when I have an additional 25 milligrams if I’m planning to mostly lounge about the house.

Lopez recommends that most people start with a pre-bed dose. Capsules allow you to know exactly how much you’re taking at once. Tinctures, which are the industry’s sales leaders, allow you to customize a day’s dosage.

What Should You Look for When Buying CBD Products?

Knowing how much CBD you’re taking can take a little math. Again, capsules are straightforward—the bottle will say how much CBD each one contains. For tinctures, you need to know the total amount of CBD in the container and the container’s size to calculate how much CBD is in each serving. I found 1-ounce tincture bottles, which contain roughly 30 servings, that ranged from containing 100 milligrams of CBD to 1,000.

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